Complete Mitochondrial Sequencing (mtDNA)


The highest level of mtDNA testing available. Full sequencing of mtDNA covers all 16,569 base pairs which includes HVR1 and HVR2 regions, and the coding region. The full sequence of mtDNA has been determined from a very large number of individuals, and the comparison of those DNA sequences represents a mainstay of phylogenetics, in that it allows biologists to elucidate the evolutionary relationships among species. It also permits an examination of the relatedness of populations, and so it has become important in anthropology and field biology. For research use only. This test also includes alignment and variant calling analytics. Results will be available for customer download on our website.

Sample requirements

By default, Gene by Gene will provide buccal (cheek) swab kits with each order. Each test requires two buccal swabs which are included in each kit. This is the preferred sample collection method. Each kit comes with return packaging and pre-paid shipping label. *Shipping fees may apply to orders outside the United States.

If necessary, Gene By Gene can accept most DNA sample types, including:
  • Extracted DNA: 20ul of 50ng/ul, OD260/OD280 ~ 1.8, include details of extraction method with samples
  • Blood: 3-5cc drawn in EDTA (purple-top) tube (additional $50 extraction fee per sample)
  • Shipping: For all non-buccal sample types, ship at room temperature in an insulated container. DO NOT HEAT OR FREEZE SAMPLE.


  • Platform: Illumina MiSeq
  • Results Delivery: Results are delivered to the customer via electronic FTP transfer and are only stored by Gene By Gene for 30-60 days.
  • Analysis: Includes alignment and variant calling (output VCF file)
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